Sunday, July 19, 2015

Work-in-Progress: Degeneration, Race, and the Rise of Sociology (reposted from the Until Darwin blog)

Degeneration, Race, &  the Rise of Sociology  
 (reposted from the Until Darwin blog

The work of writing the follow-up to Until Darwin has begun.  Below is a little bit about the manuscript.  I'll be posting more here over the next few months as I hope to complete it during my sabbatical this coming spring semester.  In hindsight, my approach in Until Darwin had an important silence because it was focused on the importance of Darwin's encounters with slavery on his thinking about nature.  Of course, Darwin is a towering figure across many disciplines whose work simply can not be ignored if we want to understand how we got to the place we find ourselves.  However, Darwin's shadow obscures just how difficult it was for even him to end the monogenic/ploygenic debates.  Most importantly, it obscures the continuities joining the concepts of polygenism, degeneracy, and race before and after the publication of the Origin, as well as their place in the emerging fields of sociology and biology. 

The persistence of the concepts of degeneracy and race, as well as polygenism, is a problem confronting not only Darwin scholars, but one to be found in the pages of any history of degeneracy or racialism. How is it that theories of race and degeneracy predate the Darwinian revolution and move from a relatively minor position within Natural History to a dominant position within the new sciences of life? By investigating this question, we are led to consider how polygenism, race, and degeneracy were reinterpreted after the collapse of Natural History. To do so is to reveal how the fields of biology and sociology relied on each other for validation and legitimacy through shared scientific ideologies of race and degeneracy. In my previous work, one gets the impression that Darwin's Origin of Species was an epistemological break, but it was an error to have left that impression. It is the persistence, and actual centrality, of these scientific ideologies that raise questions about the extent of the "revolution" initiated by the publication of the Origin. Degeneracy, race, and polygenism were not discarded as out-date scientific ideologies.  If anything, what was witnessed in the wake of the Origin of Species was an intensification of the scientific exploration of race and degeneracy as dynamic social forces in modern life, at times with an undercurrent of polygenic theory. Of course, one must admit that Darwinism produces its own theories of race and degeneracy, but equally true is that these most accommodating of Natural History's ideologies found their place with the new sciences of life. They remain  powerful scientific ideologies that gave legitimacy and social relevance to biology and sociology. It is almost impossible to imagine biology and sociology as disciplines apart from their relevance to government and to the health of the governed.

Thomas Huxley wrote that Naturalists like himself – for the term “biologist” was only just coming into use – had been too humble to simply and honestly lay their rightful claim to the domain of life, and so for the sake of convenience ceded the study of modern human life to sociology.  Huxley was quick to point out that with the inevitable advance of knowledge, biology will one day no longer need to be so humble and so will take its place as the central organizing science of social and natural life.  Until then, at the very least, “ should not be surprised if it occasionally happens that you see a biologist trespassing upon questions of philosophy or politics; or meddling with human education; because, after all, that is part of his kingdom which he has only voluntarily forsaken” (Huxley. 1876 (1902) “Study of Biology” in Scientific Memoirs IV: 252-253).  As told by this foremost of the new scientists, confining themselves to one domain of life acknowledged the formation of what his contemporary William Sumner called “the sciences of life in society" in which "....biology and sociology touch.  Sociology is a science which deals with one range of phenomena produced by the struggle for existence, while biology deals with another.  The forces are the same... the sciences are cognate” (1881:173). (from “Sociology” in War and Other Essays: 165-194). 

So the question that we will attempt to examine in this manuscript is a deceptively simple one: how is it that notions of polygenism, degeneracy and race survived the end of Natural History and were so easily incorporated into, and transformed by, the new sciences of life? It should be admitted that this question demands a more complex answer than this manuscript will provide. We can only point out an avenue of critique that has not been fully accessible until recently.  These pages will focus on one crucial aspect of this critique: the place of degeneracy and race in the emerging disciplines of biology and sociology, with special attention being given to their place in the emergence and legitimization of sociology in the United States. We can justify this focus on the United States, if indeed it need be justified, because it is where the polygenic theory reached its zenith and where slavery made questions of race and degeneracy matters of everyday life and politics. The sciences of life and society have always given a special place to degeneracy and race. Broadly speaking, the social was always biological and the biological has always been social, at least since that time when we began to speak of sociology and biology.

NGRAM (just for fun) Biology,Sociology,Biologist,Sociologist,biologist,sociologist,degenerate,degeneration,eugenics: 1800-1939

Herbert Marcuse on The Frankfurt School (video): An Interview with Brian Macgee.

Herbert Marcuse on The Frankfurt School, parts I-V.
Bryan Macgee talks with Herbert Marcuse about his work, his relation to the student movements, and the legacy of the Frankfurt School.

Part I

Part II

Part III

Part IV Part V

Friday, July 10, 2015

READING MARX: Selected Sources on Materialism

Selected Sources on Materialism for the Genealogical Study of the Writings of Karl Marx

"Once into his library, however, and having fixed his one eyeglass in the corner of his eye, in order to take your intellectual breadth and depth, so to speak, he loses that self-restraint, and unfolds to you a knowledge of men and things throughout the world apt to interest one. And his conversation does not run in one groove, but is as varied as are the volumes upon his library shelves. A man can generally be judged by the books he reads, and you can form your own conclusions when I tell you a casual glance revealed Shakespeare, Dickens, Thackeray, Moliere, Racine, Montaigne, Bacon, Goethe, Voltaire, Paine; English, American, French blue books; works political and philosophical in Russian, German, Spanish, Italian, etc., etc." --- Chicago Tribune reporter's comments on interviewing Marx, January 5, 1879.

Karl Marx
"Karl Marx went to the University of Berlin with a happy heart engaged to the beautiful Jenny von Westphalen. He was matriculated at Berlin on October 22 1836 being then 1 8 years and 5 months old. The University of Berlin was at that time still enjoying some of the splendid glory of the great name of Hegel who had died five years before. During the time that great metaphysician held the chair of Theology there Berlin University was the Mecca of German students. They came from all parts of Germany often at great sacrifice to enjoy the priceless advantage of sitting at Hegel's feet. Among those who studied there was Ludwig Feuerbach the philosopher of humanitarian religion whose Wesen des Christenthums profoundly influenced the mental development of Marx as may be seen from his and Engels Die Heilige Familie. David Strauss author of the Life of Jesus was another. But while the University of Berlin was still enjoying some of the splendour of Hegel's fame it was already declining. It had begun to lose some of the great prestige it had enjoyed during the time Hegel was in active service there. Marx entered the university when it was undergoing a transition. Less on account of the passing of Hegel than because of changing economic conditions theology and speculative philosophy in general occupied a secondary place in the life and thought of the nation practical subjects such as jurisprudence now held the place of honor. A new school of Naturalist philosophers had arisen under the leadership of the brilliant Alexander von Humboldt.

Philosophy and history were the two subjects of study which most appealed to Marx but he studied jurisprudence to please his father as a necessary evil he said. It was his good fortune to have begun his studies in jurisprudence under those eminent jurists Frederich Karl von Savigny and Eduard Gans the former of whom was lecturing at the university upon Roman Law, the latter upon Criminal Law and Prussian Property Rights. Others who were lecturing and teaching at the University of Berlin at the time were Rudolff Erbrecht upon Theology, Philosophy and Philology, Bruno Bauer upon Theology, Karl Ritter upon Geography, and J P Gabler upon Logic. Of these Bruno Bauer and Rudolff Erbrecht were Marx's personal friends. Of all the others Eduard Gans seems to have exercised the greatest influence upon him, special mention being made in the report he received upon leaving of his attention to the lectures of his friend Bauer and those of Gans. As a matter of fact he studied only a little more successfully at Berlin than he had previously done at Bonn. He worked very hard it is true often endangering his health by the intensity of his studies but it was mainly independent personal work outside of the university altogether. During the term he attended very few lectures indeed and though he successfully graduated in 1841 at Jena with the degree of Doctor of Philosophy he cannot be said to have had a very distinguished university career. -- John Spargo. 1910. Karl Marx: His Life and Work. B. W. Huebsch, 35-36.

Marx's Notebooks on Epicurean Philosophy (1839).
On the Difference between the Democritean & Epicurean Philosophy of Nature, Doctoral Thesis (1841).
Economic & Philosophic Manuscripts (1844).
The Holy Family, Or the Critique of Critical Criticism. Marx & Engels (1845).
Theses On Feuerbach (1845).
The German Ideology Marx & Engels (1845).
The Poverty of Philosophy: Answer to the Philosophy of Poverty by M. Proudhon (1847).
Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (1857-61).
Marx's Ethnographical Notebooks
Marx's Notebooks on the History of Technology
"… I have re-read my notebooks (extracts) on technology, and am attending a practical (only experimental) course for workers on the same by Professor Willis (in Jermyn Street, the Institute for Geology, where Huxley also gave his lectures)… While re-reading the technological-historical excerpts, I came to the conclusion that, apart from the invention of gun-powder, the compass and printing - these necessary pre-requisites for bourgeois development - from the 16th to the mid-18th centuries, i.e. the period of the development of manufacture from craftsmanship until really large-scale industry, the two material foundations on which were based the preparations for mechanised industry within manufacturing were the clock and the mill.…" Marx, letter to Engels of January 28, 1863. Marx & Engels, Letters on Capital, 82-84.

Eleanor Marx-Aveling. Biographical Notes on Marx’s Literary Interests.
And so many and many a year later Marx told stories to his children. To my sisters — I was then too small — he told tales as they went for walks, and these tales were measured by miles not chapters. “Tell us another mile,” was the cry of the two girls. For my own part, of the many wonderful tales Mohr told me, the most wonderful, the most delightful one, was “Hans Röckle.” It went on for months and months; it was a whole series of stories. The pity no one was there to write down these tales so full of poetry, of wit, of humour! Hans Röckle himself was a Hoffmann-like magician, who kept a toyshop, and who was always “hard up.” His shop was full of the most wonderful things — of wooden men and women, giants and dwarfs, kings and queens, workmen and masters, animals and birds as numerous as Noah got into the Arc, tables and chairs, carriages, boxes of all sorts and sizes. And though he was a magician, Hans could never meet his obligations either to the devil or the butcher, and was therefore — much against the grain — constantly obliged to sell his toys to the devil. These then went through wonderful adventures — always ending in a return to Hans Röckle’s shop. Some of these adventures were as grim, as terrible, as any of Hoffmann’s; some were comic; all were told with inexhaustible verve, wit and humour.

And Mohr would also read to his children. Thus to me, as to my sisters before me, he read the whole of Homer, the whole Nibelungen Lied, Gudrun, Don Quixote, the Arabian Nights, etc. As to Shakespeare he was the Bible of our house, seldom out of our hands or mouths. By the time I was six I knew scene upon scene of Shakespeare by heart.

On my sixth birthday Mohr presented me with my first novel — the immortal Peter Simple [adventure novel by the English writer Frederick Marryat]. This was followed by a whole course of Marryat and Cooper. And my father actually read every one of the tales as I read them, and gravely discussed them with his little girl. And when that little girl, fired by Marryat’s tales of the sea, declared she would become a “Post-Captain” (whatever that may be) and consulted her father as to whether it would not be possible for her “to dress up as a boy” and “run away to join a man-of-war,” he assured her he thought it might very well be done, only they must say nothing about it to anyone until all plans were well matured. Before these plans could be matured, however, the Scott mania had set in, and the little girl heard to her horror that she herself partly belonged to the detested clan of Campbell. Then came plots for rousing the Highlands, and for reviving “the forty-five.” [refering to Walter Scott’s novel Waverley which described an uprising against the British rule in Scotland in 1745] I should add that Scott was an author to whom Marx again and again returned, whom he admired and knew as well as he did Balzac and Fielding. And while he talked about these and many other books he would, all unconscious though she was of it, show his little girl where to look for all that was finest and best in the works, teach her — though she never thought she was being taught, to that she would have objected — to try and think, to try and understand for herself.
Biographical Notes on Marx’s Literary Interests by Eleanor Marx-Aveling
Source: Marx Engels On Literature and Art, Progress Publishers, 1976. Transcribed: by Andy Blunden.

Marx: Interviews and the Observations of a Spy:
New York World, July 18, 1871.
New York World, October 15, 1871.
Chicago Tribune, January 5, 1879.
 New York Sun, September 6, 1880.
Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff: 
      A letter to Princess Victoria concerning Dr. Marx, February 1, 1879.
"Altogether my impression of Marx, allowing for his being at the opposite pole of opinion from oneself, was not at all unfavourable and I would gladly meet him again. It will not be he who whether he wishes it or not will turn the world upside down."

Frederick Engels
Dialectics of Nature (1873-1886).
Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy (1886).
Marx as the "Literary Prometheus" after the censoring of his newspaper.

The opening quotation of Marx's Dissertation is from Prometheus Bound:
"Be sure of this, that I would not change my evil fortune to be the faithful boy to father Zeus"
These are the only surviving texts of the c.70 plays by Aeschylus.

The Orestia Trilogy
The Suppliants
Other Plays
Prometheus Bound
The Seven Against Thebes
The Persians
The Choephori

"Anaxagoras himself, who first gave a physical explanation of heaven and in this way brought it down to earth in a sense different from that of Socrates, answered, when asked for what purpose he was born: 'For the observation of the sun, the moon, and the heaven' " (Marx. Dissertation, 66).
"The Eleatics, as the first discoverers of the ideal forms of substance, who themselves still apprehended the inwardness of substance in a purely internal and abstract, intensive manner, are the passionately enthusiastic prophetic heralds of the breaking dawn. Bathed in simple light, they turn away indignantly from the people and from the gods of antiquity. But in the case of Anaxagoras the people themselves turned away indignantly from the wise man and declared him to be such, expelling him from their midst. In modern times Anaxagoras has been accursed of dualism. Aristotle says in the first book of the Metaphysics that he uses the nous like a machine and only resorts to it when he runs out of natural explanations. But this apparent dualism is on the one hand that very same dualistic element which split the heart of the state in the time of Anaxagoras, and on the other hand it must be understood more profoundly. The nous is active and is resorted to where there is no natural determination. It is itself the non ens [not-being] of the natural, the ideality. And then the activity of this ideality intervenes only when physical sight fails the philosopher, that is, the nous is the philosopher's own nous, and is resorted to when he is no longer able to objectify his activity. Thus the subjective nous appeared as the essence of the wandering scholar, and in it power as ideality of real determination, it appears on the one hand in the Sophists and on the other in Socrates" (Marx. Notebooks on Epicurean Philosophy, 436).
According to Diogeneres Laertius "Among the early philosophers....[Epicurus'] favorite was Anaxagoras, although he occasionally disagreed with him..."

History of Animals
Nicomachean Ethics
On Generation and Corruption
On the Parts of Animals
Politics (Translated by Benjamin Jowett)
The Athenian Constitution
On Longevity and Shortness of Life

Pierre Bayle
"The man who deprived seventeenth-century metaphysics and metaphysics in general of all credit in the domain of theory was Pierre Bayle. His weapon was skepticism, which he forged out of metaphysics' own magic formulas. He himself proceeded from Cartesian metaphysics. Just as Feuerbach by combating speculative theology was driven further to combat speculative philosophy, precisely because he recognized in speculation the last prop of theology, because he had to force theology to retreat from pseudo science to crude, repulsive faith, so Bayle too was driven by religious doubt to doubt about the metaphysics which was the prop of the faith. He therefore critically investigated metaphysics in its entire historical development. he became its historian in order to write the history of its death. He refuted chiefly Spinoza and Leibniz.

Pierre Bayle not only prepared the reception of materialism and of the philosophy of common sense in France by shattering metaphysics with his skepticism. He heralded the atheistic society which was soon to come in to existence by proving that a society consisting only of atheists is possible, that an atheist can be a man worthy of respect, and that it is not by atheism but by superstition and idolatry that man debases himself. To quote a French writer, Pierre Bayle was 'the last metaphysician in the sense of the seventeenth century and the first philosopher of the eighteenth century'" (Marx. Holy Family, 157-158).

Historical and critical dictionary: selections (1826)
An Historical and Critical Dictionary, Volumes 1-4.
Oeuvres diverses de M. Pierre Bayle.
Nouvelles de la republique des lettres.
Leibniz's Exchange of Views with Pierre Bayle.
Works by or about Pierre Bayle.

J. E. Cairnes
Follower of John Stuart Mill. Cairnes' The Slave Power: its character, career, and probable designs, being an attempt to explain the real issues involved in the American contest (1862) was a defense of the North in the American Civil War, made a great impression in England. Interested in noncompeting groups in the labor market and known for his distrust of mathematical economics. Works include: The Character and Logical Method of Political Economy (1857), and Some Leading Principles of Political Economy Newly Expounded (1874).

See also Adelaide Weinberg. 1970. John Elliot Cairnes and the American Civil War.
"The slave-owner buys his labourer as he buys his horse. If he loses his slave, he loses capital that can only be restored by new outlay in the slave-mart." -- Marx citing Cairnes' Slave Power.

Henry Charles Carey
U.S. economist, advocate of protective tariffs.
The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign: why it exists & how it may be extinguished
"In all countries of the world man has become free as land has acquired value, and as its owners have been enriched ; and in all man has become enslaved as land has lost its value, and its owners have been impoverished.... Freedom grows with growing wealth, not grow- ing poverty. To increase the cost of raising slaves, and thus to increase the value of man at home, produces exactly the effect anticipated from the other course of operation, because the value of the land and its produce grows more rapidly than the value of that portion of the negro's powers that can be obtained from him aa a slave — that is, without the payment of wages." (p.395-396)

DÊMOCRITUS OF ABDÊRA from Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers, by Kathleen Freeman. 1948.
"Dêmocritus of Abdêra was in his prime about 420 B.C.
A large body of written work was produced at Abdera, during and after Democritus’ time. Thrasyllus, Roman scholar of the first century A.D., using the work of Alexandrian scholars, arranged these works in tetralogies, according to their subject-matter. Ethics (Tetralogies I and II); Natural Science (III to VI); Mathematics (VII to IX); Music (X and XI); and Technical Works (XII and XIII). There were also a group of treatises under the title Causes; a group of monographs on various subjects, the genuineness of which is suspect; a large number of Maxims; and a group of forged writings on magic."

Duns Scotus
"Already the British schoolman Duns Scotus, asked, "whether it was impossible for matter to think?" (Holy Family, 158)
A Treatise on God as First Principle
"Help me then, O Lord, as I investigate how much our natural reason can learn about that true being which you are if we begin with the being which you have predicated of yourself."


Introduction to The Epicurus Reader
An introduction of Epicureanism
by D.S. Hutchinson
Introduction to Lucretius
An introduction to Lucretius in four parts
by M.F. Smith
I. Lucretius
II. On the Nature of Things
III. Epicurus and Epicureanism
IV. The Structure of Lucretius’ Poem

Collections of Epicurean Sayings:
The Principal Doctrines

The Vatican Sayings

     A short anthology of fragments compiled by Cyril Bailey

Epicurea Enumerated fragments from Hermann Usener’s 1887 compilation
Fragments from known works (U1 - U218)
Fragments from uncertain sources (U219 - U607)

De Rerum Natura

Diogenes of Oinoanda
The Epicurean Inscription (Abridged)
by Diogenes of Oinoanda
(c. 200 CE) Translation by Martin Ferguson Smith

A Gigantic Jigsaw Puzzle: The Epicurean Inscription of Diogenes of Oinoanda via Youtube with Martin Ferguson Smith

The Rhetorica
Philodemus Project

Diogenes Laertius
The biography of Epicurus from The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers
Epicurus’ will
Epicurus’ letter to Herodotus - A Summary of Physical Nature
Epicurus’ letter to Pythocles - A Summary of Phenomena of the Sky
Epicurus’ letter to Menoeceus - How to Live a Happy Life

Lucius Annaeus Seneca. Moral Epistles. Translated by Richard M. Gummere. The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1917-25. 3 vols.: Volume I.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca. Moral Epistles. Translated by Richard M. Gummere. The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1917-25. 3 vols.: Volume II.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca. Moral Epistles. Translated by Richard M. Gummere. The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1917-25. 3 vols.: Volume III.

De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum
De Natura Deorum

Cornelius Nepos
"Atticus" a biography of Roman Epicurean Titus Pomponius Atticus

Alexander the Oracle-Monger
Zeus Rants

Ludwig von Feuerbach
"In these circumstances, a short, coherent account of our relation to the Hegelian philosophy, of how we proceeded, as well as of how we separated, from it, appeared to me to be required more and more. Equally, a full acknowledgement of the influence which Feuerbach, more than any other post-Hegelian philosopher, had upon us during our period of storm and stress, appeared to me to be an undischarged debt of honor." -- Engels, Ludwig von Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
The Essence Of Christianity In Relation To The Ego and Its Own
Principles of the Philosophy of the Future
"Things in thought should not be different from what they are in reality. What is separate in reality should not be identical in thought. To exclude thinking or ideas – the intellectual world of the neo-Platonists – from the laws of reality is the privilege of theological capriciousness. The laws of reality are also the laws of thought."
Pierre Bayle: Nach seinen für die Geschichte der Philosophie und Menschheit
Ludwig Feuerbach Archive
Epicurus, By Peter Gassendi, Translated by Thomas Stanley

Hegel by Hypertext Home Page (features many complete texts)
Jean Hyppolite. Logic & Existence (1952). State University of New York Press, 1997. Final Chapter before Conclusion reproduced here: "The Organisation of the Logic: Being, Essence, Concept"

(fl. about 450-370 BC), Greek philosopher, probably born in Abdera. Virtually nothing is known of his life and none of his writings survive. He is, however, credited with founding the atomic theory of matter, later developed by his pupil, Democritus. According to this theory, all matter is constituted of identical indivisible particles called atoms. We have but one fragment, which Wheelwright translates (though Kirk and Raven dispute its authorship) as:
"Nothing happens at random; whatever comes about is by rational necessity"

Proudhon Archive
Proudhon letter to Marx, Lyon, 17 May 1846.

Complete Works.
Timon of Athens (Marx's favorite and often quoted play)
All's Well That Ends Well
Antony and Cleopatra
As You Like It
The Comedy of Errors
The Comedy of Errors
Florizel and Perdita (adaptation of Winter's Tale)
Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 2
Henry V
Henry VI, Part 1
Henry VI, Part 2
Henry VI, Part 3
Henry VIII
Julius Caesar
King John
King Lear
Love's Labour's Lost
Measure for Measure
The Merchant of Venice
The Merry Wives of Windsor
A Midsummer Night's Dream
Much Ado About Nothing
Richard II
Richard III
Richard III (18th century adaptation)
Romeo and Juliet
The Taming of the Shrew
The Tempest
Titus Andronicus
Troilus and Cressida
Twelfth Night
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Winter's Tale

The chief works of Benedict de Spinoza, vol. I.
The chief works of Benedict de Spinoza, vol. II.

Monday, February 9, 2015

The Seventh New Hampshire Volunteers: A Month in New York City, January - February 1862.

The Seventh New Hampshire Volunteers:
A Month in the big city: Street life, Drilling in Washington Square, Keeping Horace Greeley out in the cold, and the dinner for the Sons of New Hampshire. New York City, January - February 1862.

Paul Whipple and the Seventh arrived in New York on January 15, 1862 to await deployment to "the seat of war" in the South.  While in New York, the soldiers had the experience of being at sea for the first time during their trip.  They

"at once went on board the sound boat "Connecticut," with orders to proceed to Jersey City, N. J. 
On Long Island Sound everything went smoothly until about 2 o'clock a. m. of the 15th [of January], when the weather became squally, and the boat pitched badly. Many of the men who had never before experienced a trip by water, soon found out how people felt when under the influence of sea-sickness. All around the bulwarks appeared a measly looking crowd, and every mother's son of them seemed to have a lot to say about New York, but our destination was then Jersey City." Little, Henry F. W. 1896.  The Seventh Regiment New Hampshire Volunteers in the War of the Rebellion. Concord, N. H., I. C. Evans, Printer. p.23
Upon arriving in Jersey City, they received orders to head instead for New York City:
"we steamed up to Jersey City and laid by there a number of hours, the cause for this soon after became apparent. A telegram from Washington, D. C, awaited us, ordering the regiment into barracks in the City of New York. Consequently we crossed over to the South Hampton and Havre pier, at the foot of Canal street, where we disembarked, and were marched up Canal street to Broadway, down Broadway, and to 79 White street, near the corner of Broadway, where there was a building formerly used for storage purposes, six stories in height, including basement, which had been leased by the government as a depot for troops awaiting orders. Our regiment was at once marched inside and occupied the upper floors, the officers occupying a part of the first or ground floor, reserving the other portion for guard mounting: and every day when the weather would permit, we were drilled on Washington Square, in company or battalion drill." Little, The Seventh Regiment New Hampshire, p.23-24.
              Washington Square Park, April 20, 1861.Washington's statue holds flag from Fort Sumter.   

Provisions are easy to come by at first. 
"as soon as the boy's found they could not get out without a pass, they began to barter with outsiders from the windows, and we often noticed suspicious looking bottles going up to one of the upper floors, suspended from a line. From other windows they were hauling in small baskets or boxes loaded with pies, cakes, fruit, or clothing, the price of the articles having been previously thrown to the venders on the ground. It was soon evident that considerable " black-strap," as the men called it, was gaining admittance, and the more effectually to stop it, an order was issued to station guards or sentinels at each window, which almost wholly ended our traffic with the outside world." Little, The Seventh Regiment New Hampshire, p.24.

A vendor was allowed to set up shop instead, but soon began to charge higher prices than the traders outside.  The soldiers attacked his shop and would have looted it clean had not the officer of the guard stepped in to prevent it.  The soldiers also at first endured shorten the rations and poor quality food from the local vendors.  In protest, the soldiers would:  

"file along to their places, face the table, take their plates of bean soup, turn them upside down, and file quietly back to their quarters. Then the order of things was slightly changed, and we got mutton soup, which must have been made from the very poorest and strongest kind of mutton, to judge by the smell of the article, to which, under the circumstances,
the men did not take kindly. Consequently, when they got down at the tables and could sniff the peculiar flavor from the cook-room, they knew what was coming, and at once set up such a continuous bleating that one would think a large western sheep ranch had arrived, and at a given signal, over would go the plates, soup and all. but after a time the quality of the rations was in a measure remedied by the officer' of the day paying more attention to his duties, being present at each meal, to see if the rations were fairly issued and of good quality, and that a plentiful supply was set before the men." Little, The Seventh Regiment New Hampshire, p.24-25.
 In the midst of this, the local Sons of New Hampshire, including Horace Greeley, proposed to throw a party in honor of the Seventh, but the soldiers were again disappointed to find that only the officers had been invited, as reported in the New York Times:
Yesterday morning the Sons of New-Hampshire met at the Grand Hotel, in order to make arrangements to give the officers of the Seventh New-Hampshire Regiment, now in this City, a proper reception before they leave for the seat of war. Messrs. H. B. Perkins.W. N. Brown, N. P. Higgins, E. P. Budd, George F. Peterson, C. A. Soule and Joseph Cushing were appointed a committee to, wait upon the officers of the Seventh, and tender them the hospitalities of The Sons of New-Hampshire. The Invitation was accepted, and the dinner will take place to-morrow evening, at six o'clock. All New-Hampshire men resident in this City are expected to attend.  New York Times. January 18, 1862, col.3, p.5)

The Committee, along with Horace Greeley, ventured down to the barracks to collect the officers, but did not quite get the reception they expected:

“A few days after the regiment arrived in New York, the Sons of New Hampshire living in the city, gave the officers of our regiment a supper. The men in the ranks did not like it because all were not invited. On the evening of the banquet George W. Fisher, of Company I, was one of the guards at the officers' quarters, and the Sons of New Hampshire were to come and escort the officers over to the banquet rooms. The orders to the sentinels were not to pass anyone unless accompanied by an officer. Fisher told his comrade, who was on guard with him, that he did not know the Sons of New Hampshire from a side of sole-leather, and that he did not propose to let anyone in with-out an officer for escort. Among others that appeared and wanted to go in was a man with a gray coat, who was kept waiting with the others. After a while, Adjutant Henderson came out and told the guards that they had kept Horace Greeley out in the cold tor fifteen or twenty minutes, to which they replied that they were obeying orders. A sergeant was then detailed to pass in the visitors.” Little, The Seventh Regiment New Hampshire, p.26.
79 White Street as it looks today. Present building dates from 1915.
While the officers were treated to their dinner, Little remarks that for the soldiers:
"Occasionally some patriotic citizen would come up to headquarters and ask permission to go in and take out a few of the men to a theatre or lecture, and many life-long acquaintances were thus made by our New Hampshire boy's with citizens of the great metropolis. The men who were thus favored passed many pleasant hours with their whilom chaperon." Little, The Seventh Regiment New Hampshire, p.26-27.

The New York Times did do a fairly extensive write-up of the Sons of New Hampshire dinner, which was from this account a lively affair at the posh Metropolitan Hotel.  However, even in this account one can hear the distant horrors of the war that were already known, and the horrors to come.

Dinner at the Metropolitan Hotel—A
Cordial Greeting
Speeches by Lieut-Col. Abbott, Mr. Soule, Mr. H. B. Perkins, Horace Greeley, Gen. Hall, Judge Peabody, and others.

The sons of New-Hampshire, resident in New York, extended a cordial welcome to the Seventh New-Hampshire Regiment yesterday, as the latter passed through the City, en route for the seat of war. In the evening a dinner was given to the officers at the Metropolitan Hotel. The repast was expressly designed to meet the sharp appetites of soldiers, and abounded not only in substantials, but in some of the delicacies which the Messrs Leland know so well how to prepare. The arrangements were excellently made by the Committee, Messrs. N. Higgins, E. P. Budd, H. B. Perkins, W.N. Brown, George F. Patterson, C.A. Soule, and Joseph Cushing.
At about 7 1/2 the guests, to the number of one hundred and fifty, sat down and did full justice to the excellence of the viands presented for their consideration. At the head of the table was a vacant seat for Col. Putnam. On either side were arranged the Chairman, Mr. Soule, Lieut.-Col. Abbot, Gen. Hall, Horace Greeley, Judge Peabody, Judge Bonny, Maj. Roland, of the Berdan Sharpshooters, and others.
At the conclusion of the gustatory performance, the Chairman, M. Soule, called the assemblage to order and proceeded to address them briefly. He said they were a family party. They knew the cause was just, and the right must prevail. [Applause.] When, after the memorable events of the 19th of April, New-York saw a regiment of Massachusetts volunteers [Applause.] marching to the relief of the Capital and the defense of the Union, they believed that the ‛hidden curse’ on the assailants of the Union was being fulfilled. [Applause.] they well remember the appearance of the First New Hampshire Regiment as it came fully prepared to take their position in the armies of the Union. [Applause.] Today, they welcome the Seventh Regiment. [Applause.] They all knew that the name of Putnam, in the present as well as in the past, was a synonym of patriotism and greatness. They all remembered the part the the Second New Hampshire Regiment had taken in the battle of Bull Run, and that made the soil of Virginia sacred to them. They all remembered how Israel Putnam had sought out, and dragged her den the wolf that had been depredating upon his own and his neighbors’ property; and he hoped that the Putnam who commanded this regiment would follow the wolf of rebellion to her den, and drag her forth. [Applause.] In conclusion, he gave the health of Col. Putnam of the Seventh New Hampshire Volunteers.
Col. Putnam being absent, owing to pressing official duties, Lieut.-Col. Abbott responded. He believed that the return, rather than the advance, would prove the proper occasion for ovations like this. He hoped they would deserve such a reception on their return. [Applause.] He took occasion to show what New Hampshire has done in this war. The First Regiment had left on the 21st of May, the Seventh was on the way, and the Eighth and Ninth were under way. She had also furnished a regiment of artillery, a battalion of cavalry, and a regiment of sharpshooters. [Applause.] New-Hampshire had taken her part at Bunker Hill, and now 10,000 men in the field of this war. [Applause.] New-Hampshire had taken part in establishing this Government, and she meant to take some part in its preservation. [Applause.] They consider this war much holier than the Crusades. [Applause.] In such a war, the pomp of marching legions was eclipsed by the grandeur of their object. In conclusion, he gave,
The Sons of New-Hampshire resident in New York – Their prominence in all walks of life in the City of their adoption is only equaled by their attachment to the State of their birth, and liberality to their citizens.” [Applause.]
The Lieutenant-Colonel call for three cheers for the sons of New-Hampshire, which were given with a will and reciprocated likewise.
The Chairman reiterated that they were here as a family party, and no one could complain that they praised their noble mother, New-Hampshire. In conclusion he proposed –
The health of the President of the United States.”
and called upon Hon. Horace Greeley to respond.
Mr. Greeley spoke of the many officers of the army who had gone over to the rebels. The Preseident had a great many difficulties to contend against; a great many trials through which he was obliged to pass. Much opposition was in Washington of a very malignant type. An Army of the people had now been congregated. [Applause.] He believed, if the weather and roads were favourable, this body of men could crush out the rebellion in sixty days. He considered that the last danger was foreign interference. All oligarchs wished the overthrow of this Republic. He honored the old Tories of England who came out broadly against this country, for he knew that they had in mind the former victories of our arms. If the men who stand in the ranks of the South were to hear them, two-thirds of their number would walk over to our side. Only by wholesale lying can the rebellion be kept upon its legs for a month. The South need [ ] means more than they need men. They are called upon to buy muskets and war material, but have not the money to pay for them. He was positive that a majority of the citizens of the South, if they could be allowed the privilege of voting, would vote in favor of crushing the rebellion. He beseeched the soldiers New-Hampshire to carry upon their arms the hopes and the destinies of the human race. [Applause.]
The Chairman then read the next regular toast:
New-Hampshire, our common mother,
Where’re we travel, whatso’er land we see,
Our hearts untrammeled, fondly belong to thee.
The Honor which her sons bestow upon her, is coeval with her granite hills.”
Mr. H.B. Perkins responded eloquently.
The Chairman next offered a sentiment, complementary to New-York and her citizen soldiery, and called upon Gen. Hall to respond.
Gen. Hall responded briefly and modestly, and gave as a sentiment,
The ‛Star-Spangled Banner’ – Whether it is spread to the breeze in the North, South, East, or West, may every star in its field shine with is accustomed brilliancy.” [Applause.]
The Chairman called for “the Star Spangled Banner,” but no one seemed willing to start it.
A gentleman suggested that Mr. Tenney could sing it. Mr. Tenney said he would if he could, but he didn’t know the tune. He sang, however, with much effect, “Hurrah for Old New England.”
The Chairman next remarked that some of the lawyers of New-Hampshire had honored the bar of New-York. He gave as a sentiment –
The Bench of New-York – The Sons of New-Hampshire have sat upon it, and left it ermine unsullied.
Judge Peabody responded briefly, returning his acknowledgments for the honor paid himself and his Sate. His speech was received with much favor. In conclusion, Judge Peabody gave the following:
The War for the Union – A war not for or against any one institution, except that it is for the institution of civil liberty, but a war for the country and the Union, and whatever measures tend best to the preservation of the country and the protection of the Union are the best measures for conducting the war. [Applause.]
The Chairman next gave the following:
Reverence for and obedience to, the Law, the salvation of any country.
Judge Bonnett was called upon, and briefly responded in illustration of, and admiration for, the sentiment.
The Chairman next gave:
The Adopted Sons of New-Hampshire – She treats her sons as a mother treats her children.
Mr. Charles A. Luce, Esq., responded. He said that although the remark of Mr. Webster that New-Hampshire was a good place to emigrate from, had been interpreted as a slur upon New-Hampshire, Mr. Webster really intended it as a compliment. Mr. Webster has stated that he meant to say, that it was a good state to emigrate from, that when a man was known to hail from New-Hampshire, he was looked upon as a good fellow, and fared well accordingly. [Applause and laughter.] He complimented the energy of Lt.-Col. Abbott in raising the First New Hampshire Regiment, and bid God speed to the Seventh, on its way to the seat of war. He quoted the eloquent apotheosis of Gen. Baker to the American flag, and in conclusion gave the following sentiment:
The Seventh Regiment of New-Hampshire Volunteers, officered by regulars and volunteers – May they be each worthy of the other, and the whole combined be worthy of the Old Granite State, and the nation at large.
The Chairman next read the following volunteer toast:
Harvard University – The cradle in which the sons of New-Hampshire have learned to love their country.
Adjutant Henderson replied, trusting that he should never return until the rebellion is crushed.
Mr. Bryant, of Haverhill, said that he believed that New-Hampshire was a good State to emigrate to, and also to emigrate from. He found that the very heart and soul of New Hampshire was here. [Applause.] He was glad that though the soldiers of New-Hampshire were not to be commanded by a Stark they were to be commanded by a Putnam.
The Chairman next gave,
Our Parents, Brothers, and Sisters – If dead, we reverence them and remember them; if alive, we pray for their long life and continued prosperity.
The Chairman next gave the health of the man who saved the Great Eastern in her time of peril during the last voyage. He gave the health of Hamilton E. Towle.
Mr. Towle declined to speak, but was honored with three cheers.
The Chairman next read a volunteer toast.
The Smith Family – First in peace, first in war, and first in the hearts of their countrymen.
Maj. Smith was called upon to speak, but declined, saying he was too old to commence that business.
Mr. Lege gave the following:
The Seventh New-Hampshire Regiment – When we hear from them may they be chasing the reels and never be chased.
He called upon Capt. Chase to respond.
Capt. Chase replied in eloquent strains. The next sentiment was –
Pittsfield – We feel sad to leave it for war.
Capt. Leavitt was called upon to respond, but was excused because he was on duty. [Applause.]
Major Roland was next called upon, and sang, amid much applause, the Grave of Napoleon.
Major Roland proposed the health of Gov. Berry of New-Hampshire, which was received with cheers.
Mr. Perkins proposed the health of their worthy landlord, Simon[?] Leland, who could both make a speech and keep a hotel.
Mr. Leland was called for and cheered, but modestly declined.
The Chairman proposed the health of the Lieutenant-Colonel of the Fifty-second New-York Volunteers.
Lieut-Col. Kasinski responded, hoping that in less than one year the thirty-four stars would be united. [Applause.]
The Chairman next called upon Mr. John Raymond to respond to a toast complimentary to the legal talent of New-Hampshire.
Mr. Raymond responded felicitously.
Major Roland proposed the health of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the United States. He said that Gen. Todtleben had remarked to him, on receiving a copy of one of Gen. McClellan’s works, that we had two great Generals here, Scott and McClellan, and Gen. Todtleben predicted the future success of Gen. McClellan [Cheers]
The Chairman next gave
New Hampshire – Famous for granite, ice, and men, and celebrated for good Breeding.
Mr. Breed responded in a humorous address.
The chairman next made a toast complementary to the Press, which was received with cheers. He next gave “The Clergy,” to which
Mr. Chaplin Emerson, of the New Hampshire Seventh, responded.
Other speeches and toasts followed, and it was not until a late hour that the convivial assemblage separated.
The New York Times.  January 19, 1862, col2, p.8.  (Names in bold were given in capital letters in original.  The New York Times spelled state names such as New Hampshire" or New York" with a hyphen.)
Battle flags of the 7th New Hampshire. National Archives.